Digital blocks typically communicate with each other using bus protocols, a few examples of which includes AMBA AXI, WishBone, OCP, etc. Bus masters that send out data adhering to a certain protocol provide control signals that tell the slave when the packet is valid, and whether it is a read or write, and how many bytes of data is sent. The master also sends out an address followed by the data to be stored at that address.

Let's see a quick example where the testbench acts as the master and constrains the bus packet class object with valid data.

 
// Burst [ 0 -> 1 byte, 1 -> 2 bytes, 2 -> 3 bytes, 3 -> 4 bytes]
// Length -> max 8 transactions per burst
// Protocol expects to send only first addr, and slave should calculate all
// other addresses from burst and length properties
 
class BusTransaction;
  rand int       m_addr;
  rand bit [31:0]  m_data;   
  rand bit [1:0]   m_burst;   // Size of a single transaction in bytes (4 bytes max)
  rand bit [2:0]   m_length;   // Total number of transactions
 
  constraint c_addr { m_addr % 4 == 0; } // Always aligned to 4-byte boundary
 
  function void display(int idx = 0);
    $display ("------ Transaction %0d------", idx);
    $display (" Addr   = 0x%0h", m_addr);
    $display (" Data   = 0x%0h", m_data);
    $display (" Burst   = %0d bytes/xfr", m_burst + 1);
    $display (" Length  = %0d", m_length + 1);
  endfunction
endclass
 
module tb;
  int         slave_start;
  int          slave_end;
  BusTransaction  bt;
 
  // Assume we are targeting a slave with addr range 0x200 to 0x800
  initial begin
    slave_start = 32'h200;
    slave_end   = 32'h800;
    bt = new;
 
    bt.randomize() with { m_addr >= slave_start; 
                          m_addr < slave_end;
                         (m_burst + 1) * (m_length + 1) + m_addr < slave_end;
                        };
    bt.display();
  end
endmodule
 
Simulation Log
ncsim> run
------ Transaction 0------
 Addr 	= 0x6e0
 Data 	= 0xbbe5ea58
 Burst 	= 4 bytes/xfr
 Length  = 5
ncsim: *W,RNQUIE: Simulation is complete.

Click to try this example in a simulator!   

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