Universal gates are digital logic gates that can be used to implement any Boolean function without requiring other gates. In other words, any Boolean function can be expressed as a combination of one or more universal gates. The two most commonly used universal gates are the NAND gate and the NOR gate.

## What is a K-Map and what is it used for ?

A Karnaugh map, also known as a K-Map, is a graphical representation of a truth table that simplifies Boolean algebra expressions. It is a tool used in digital electronics and computer science for optimizing logical functions to reduce the number of gates or circuits required to implement a logic function.

A K-Map is a table with binary values that are used to represent all possible input combinations for a given Boolean function. The table is arranged in a particular way so that adjacent cells have only one variable changing between them. This layout allows the identification of groups of adjacent cells with the same output value, which can be used to simplify and optimize the Boolean function.

Boolean logic is a type of logic that is used in computer programming and digital electronics to make logical decisions. It uses a binary system of 1's and 0's to represent true and false, and logical operators such as AND, OR, and NOT to combine and manipulate these values. Boolean logic is fundamental to many programming languages and is used in everything from creating basic IF/ELSE statements to more complex decision-making algorithms.

The CPU (Central Processing Unit) typically consists of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), floating point unit (FLU/FPU), registers, control unit and the cache memory.

The ALU performs integer arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and logic operations such as AND, OR, XOR, etc. *Integers* are whole numbers without fractional components. 1, 2, and 3 are integers while 0.1, 2.01, and 3.005 all have fractional components and are called floating point numbers.

## What is ASCII Code ?

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) code is a standard system used to represent text characters as numeric codes in digital electronics and computing. In ASCII code, each character is assigned a unique 7-bit code, allowing for a total of 128 possible characters.

For example, the letter "A" is represented in ASCII code as the number 65. The letter "B" is represented as the number 66, and so on. Punctuation marks, numbers, and special characters also have unique ASCII codes.