What is the difference between a deep copy and a shallow copy ?
A deep copy is one where nested class object contents are also entirely copied over into the new class object. A shallow copy is one where nested class objects are not copied but instead handles are simply assigned. So, if the original class object changes its contents, then the copied class also see the same contents.
Read more on SystemVerilog Copying Objects.
How will you test the functionality of interrupts using functional coverage?
Testing the functionality of interrupts using functional coverage involves the following steps:
- Define functional coverage goals: First, you need to define your functional coverage goals. These goals should be specific to the interrupts you want to test. For example, you might define goals for interrupt latency, interrupt frequency, or interrupt priority handling.
- Create a testbench for interrupts: Next, you need to create a testbench that generates interrupts with different characteristics. This testbench should also monitor the behavior of the design under test (DUT) in response to the interrupts.
- Implement functional coverage: You can then implement functional coverage in your testbench to track how often each of the defined functional goals is achieved. You can use standard SystemVerilog constructs like covergroups, coverpoints, and bins to define and track the functional coverage.
- Analyze the functional coverage results: Finally, you can analyze the functional coverage results to determine how well your testbench tests the desired interrupt functionality. Based on the results, you can make adjustments to your testbench to improve the tests.
What logic is inferred when there are multiple assign statements targeting the same wire for synthesis ?
The synthesis tool will give a syntax error for a
wire that is an output port of a module if it is driven by more than one source.
wire out; assign out = a & b; // Elsewhere in the code, another assign to // the same wire will cause multiple driver error assign out = a | b;
A synchronous FIFO (First-In-First-Out) is a digital circuit that is used to transfer data between the same clock domain and the main function is to buffer data when the rate of data transfer is faster than the rate of data processing.
A synchronous FIFO is called "synchronous" because it uses synchronized clocks to control the read and write operations. The read and write pointers of the FIFO are updated synchronously with the clocks, and data is transferred between the FIFO and the external circuit synchronously with the clocks.
Gray code is a binary code where each successive value differs from the previous value by only one bit.
module bin2gray #(parameter N=4) ( input [N-1:0] bin, output [N-1:0] gray); genvar i; generate for(i = 0; i < N-1; i = i + 1) begin assign gray[i] = bin[i] ^ bin[i+1]; end endgenerate assign gray[N-1] = bin[N-1]; endmodule